1. From A True, Sincere, and Modest Defense of English Catholics by William Allen

1.1. William Allen studied at Oxford during the reigns of Edward VI and Mary I

1.2. He was a Catholic, which was against the law, and maintained his Catholicism his entire life. He encouraged other Catholics to follow their religion rater than obey the law.

1.3. The law forced people to follow protestantism. He was against this.

1.4. According to the article we need to follow God in the right way.

1.5. The law that was in effect at that time was causing people to be at God’s mercy and they could only hope he would give it to them.

1.6. The law was wrong because Protestantism, specifically the Calvinism they were practicing, was supposedly wrong and sacrilegious.

1.7. Because of the law many distresses, troubles, and dangers were caused to those who were Catholic and not Protestant.

1.8. The Catholics were practicing their beliefs in secret to make it look like they were obeying and following the law.

1.9. To protest against the law Catholics would practice their beliefs out in the open, no longer in secret, for all to see.

1.10. The Monarch could do what hey would but they should do it consciously and with keeping the Catholics in mind.

1.11. What the Catholics thought it best for the Monarch to do, what was best for all of England, was to stop persecuting those of the Catholic faith and let them practice what they believed without fear of getting caught and punished for it.

1.12. If this did not happen then let God be the judge because the Catholics fire would not be put out.

2. From Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland by Raphael Holinshed

2.1. Raphael Holinshed studied at Cambridge and was a translator for Reginald Wolfe during Elizabeth I’s reign.

2.2. Wolfe was creating a universal history using someone else’s notes but adding his own for England, Scotland, and Ireland.

2.3.Wolfe died during the process but Holinshed finished and published a first edition in 1577, but this was only limited to England, Scotland, and Ireland.


2.4. A second edition was published after Holinshed’s death in 1587, which is the version in the contexts of The Merchant of Venice.

2.5. The first section focuses on the time of the reign of Henry III, circa 1255.

2.6. There was much prejudice against and persecution of the Jews at this time, especially among the Christians.

2.7. On top of the persecution the king started to demand money and extra taxes from the jews and this felt like more persecution so the jews started to revolt and rebel.

2.8. One way in which they revolted were supposed ritual killings of the Christians, including one rumored crucifixion of a young boy the same way it would have happened to Jesus Christ.

2.9. Eighteen of the people suspected to be involved in this rumored incident were arrested and hanged, the rest that were suspected remain several years in prison.

2.10. The second section focuses on the time of the reign of Edward I, 1290.

2.11. The Jews at this time were banished from england and forced to flea their homes.

2.12. Anything they could not take with them was confiscated by authorities.

2.13. If they were unaware of this new decree and did not leave they were hanged for not following the law.